Welcome to India

Welcome to Literature of Indian Culture. This is an attempt to enable a single window access for providing useful information for anyone researching about Indian culture, Literature, Ancient India, History of India, History of Indian Culture.

Welcome to India


Shruti Haasan to star in six films in 2015

Actress Shruti Haasan has her plates full in 2015. She has six releases lined up for this year, out of which four are Hindi films and one Tamil and one Telugu.

Shruti has been working round the clock to complete her films. She also tweeted how much she has worked in the year gone by.

In Bollywood, Shruti has Gabbar opposite Akshay Kumar, Rocky Handsome and Welcome Back opposite John Abraham and Yaara opposite Vidyut Jammwal.

Down south, she has a yet-untitled Tamil and Telugu project each with Vijay and Mahesh Babu, respectively.

"She's been working tirelessly, round the clock juggling between her film and brand commitments, while also making time for her music. Shruti has got a very interesting line up that spans various genres and ensures different looks and character graphs," a source close to Shruti told IANS.

Recently, she was signed on for yet-untitled Tamil-Telugu bilingual featuring actor Akkineni Nagarjuna and Karthi.

(With input from IANS)

Our Glorius Heritage

Asia is the largest continent of the world in terms of area and population. And India is a large country in Asia in terms of area and population. It has a prominent place in the South Asia.
India is a land of  'Sujalam' (Full of sweet water) and 'Suflam' (Full of sweet fruit and crops),  a land that has been endowed with varied heritage.
People, right from the beginning of Indus-Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) till today, have made our country rich and wealthy with their intellect, ability talents and skill. Innumerable Scholars, thinkers, artists, artisans, sages, saints, scientists and historians have contributed to the growth and development of our culture.
What differentiates mankind from other living beings is culture. Culture and Civilization are the distinguishing features of mankind. Man has made a great progress right from the primitive era to the modern day sky scrapers, jet planes and Satellite. All these can be included in our 'Culture'.

Meaning Of Culture

Culture is the sum total of habits, values, customs, fine arts, drawings, architecture, traditions and conduct of life-style of man. It also means achieving the highest ideals of mankind, at a particular period or time in human history. Culture is journey of man from cave (darkness) to home (light).The word 'Culture' is used with a specific meaning and incudes ideology, intellect, skill, art and noble values. The development of different branches of philosophical thinking, fine arts, religious customs and traditional paintings, sculpture and the economic development are also a part of culture.
Culture means a way of life of a particular group of people, at a particular period.
After having followed the broader meaning of Indian culture, let us proceed further.

Cultural Heritage Of India

Historians and thinkers believe that India is the country from where the ray of culture emerged and great thoughts are propagated. It is the only culture in the world which spreads realization of 'sat' (truth) 'chit' (concentration) and 'anand' (pleasure).It also glorifies one and all, since it visualizes the life with a rare vision and something auspicious.
Indian culture is proud of its natural inheritance like: the Himalayas, the river Ganga, the Yamuna the Saraswati, the Sindh and the kaveri. It also means a Varity and rare emotion, feelings, knowledge, devotion and deeds. It also includes justice and, morals, mercy and compassion, love and non-violence mutual understating and harmony. All these have a prominent place in the Indian cultural.
Indian culture aims at achieving the goal of 'Dharma'(righteousness) 'Artha' (material possession),'Kama' (physical pleasure) and 'Moksha' (salvation).
India is a country of peace and tolerance. There is no place for war, battle or strife in Indian culture. The emphasis has been laid on achieving peace all around. The words 'Om shanti....shanti' uttered at the end of any prayer, support it.

Characteristics Of Indian Culture

Many things can be included while describing the distinguishing characteristics of Indian culture. But it is a fact that India is an amalgamation of various thoughts and ideologies. It is very vast and varied culture rich in knowledge, devotion deeds, emotions and feeling. It is the broad mindedness of Indian culture that it assimilated all those characteristic features without any hesitation to which it was exposed from various other cultures and moulded them in own way.
India did not believe in invasion or war to propagate its culture, religion, ideology or any other thing. It treated all living creatures with same equality and compassion.

Features of Indian Culture: 

1. Longevity and continuity
 2. Unity in diversity
 3. Tolerance
 4. Amalgamation of Spirituality and Materialism 

Rich Heritage Of India

India has a varied natural and culture heritage. The main reason of it is that   India is a vast nation with different geographical and physical conditions. The history of India is thousands of years old. This culture has remanded a witness, to the change due to exchange of ideologies.
Many foreigners invaded India and were victorious. They settled down here and merged in the ocean of Indian culture. In this context, heritage is a precious gift from our ancestors. Heritage is natural as well as man-made. Its development has taken place along with the historic eras. On one hand, heritage is associated with place, province or region; on the other hand, it is associated with family and community. It is a special feature of the people and their identity.
To make it simpler, we divide our heritage as natural and cultural. 

Natural Heritage

Natural heritage incudes, features like mountains, forests, deserts, rivers, streams, seas, trees, plants, creepers, flowers, leaves and insects etc. India is a land of geographical and environment extremities. It includes high, mountains big and small rivers, wide fertile lands, river valley regions, dense forests, long seashores and deserts. In this varies landscape a wide range of minerals, vegetation, plants, and animal are abound. Irregularities in weather or climate can even affect our heritage. The result of a close relationship between nature, environment and human- life is natural heritage.

Worshipping animals, river and mountains has been a part of Indian tradition. Similarly we consider pipal, banyan and tulsi as holy and reverential. Some birds and animals are accepted the vehicles of gods and goddesses. It is only because of this that we treat them with we respects and faith. Due to this, Indian culture has made a unique impression in the world. Some example of these can be found in ‘Jataka Kathas’ of Buddhism.
We can also see a close relations between nature and the classical and folk music. Several Classical ragas are based on ‘Prahar’ (period of a day) and on ‘ritu’ (seasons). Nature and the seasons of the year have been the central themes for our songs, poems, festival and paintings. Similarly, Ayurveda, Unani and Nature cure are also based on nature. Therefore, we can say that natural and cultural heritage have a very deep relationship.
Nature has endowed India generously. In the course of Indian History nature has played a prominent part. 


Beautiful landscapes are generally formed due to varied topography of land. For example, the Himalaya is a land-shape. But it has endowed Indians abundantly with brimming rivers, streams, forests of Terai and its pilgrimage places, which can be consedned landscapes. The landscapes have greatly influenced the occupation  of the people, their lifestyle and customs. Since the time of the Aryans, the mountains have been considered to be adorable and holy amongst various elements of nature. From ancient time, the Himalayan range has remained a part of Indian heritage.

Rivers : Indian culture is known as river culture.

The rivers of India have remained’ reverential’ as ‘Lokmata’ from ancient time till today. Our Indian culture has flourished on the river bank of Ganga, the Yamuna, the Ravi, and other rivers. The rivers like the Ganga, the Yamuna, the saraswati, the sindhu, the kaveri the Narmada and the Godavari, etc. have profoundly influenced the people of India. Rivers are the source for drinking water, household use. irrigation, floor-plastering as well as making utensils from clay etc. Landscapes, scenes at dawn and dusk are very fascinating on the side of the river these are inspiration for artists and have enriched the lives of the people by developing their aesthetic sense. 

Vegetation :  From ancient time people of India have remained lovers of nature.

In India, the trees like banyan, pipal, neem, shrubs and tulsi etc are considered as holy and treated with great reverence. Since ancient time, the green fields, prosperous forest and medicinal plants have enriched Indian culture. Grains and cereals, plants of oilseeds, myrobalan, tulsi, ardusi, alovera etc prove to be very useful. Flowers like rose, michelia, daisy, louts, sunflower etc. have made human life beautiful useful and prosperous. It has a deep impact on our social, economic and religious life. Worshipping of Tulsi plant every morning and observing Vad-Savitri vrat, show the religious significance of plant-life.

Wild Life

The people of India love nature and animals (flora and fauna) since ancient times. Indian have realized the importance of wildlife – elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, wolf, deer, bear, lion, stag etc. They have contributed greatly in making Indian culture varied. It is a well-known fact that the value of the tusk of a dead elephant and the leather of a dead tiger and lion are immense. But we sanctuaries are established. This is endent by the fact,  that the Nation emblem of India has in the figure of lion in it.

Cultural Heritage

Culture Heritage that India has gifted to the world is also prosperous rich and varied. Culture heritage is man-made heritage. Whatever man obtains or creates with his intellect, skills is called culture heritage.

The people of India, from the pre-history period, have contributed to the people of the world. For e.g.  sculpture is a 5000 years old ancient art. The remains of Indus valley civilization is evidence of this. The remains of the figures of Gods and Goddesses, human figures, animal and several toys as well as sculpture of a man with beard and the statue of a dancer are the examples of rich culture heritage and their contribution to the world.

Futher when we look at the bullock or lion on an inverted lotus of Mauryan Era, the statue of Gautam Buddha in a meditative mood, or the statues of jain saint and the caves of Ajanta Ellora etc. (prepared by kings), we feel gladdened and proud and we show a great respect and reverence for our culture heritage.

Palaces, buildings, sculptures stupas, ‘Viharas’ ‘Chaitya’, temples, mosques, tombs, domes forts, gates, etc all these architectural monuments is a part of our culture heritage. Even the historical places of our freedom movement can also be considered as a part of out culture heritage.

This culture heritage should not only be conserved and preserved but also developed by the people of India age after age. As a result, the continuity of our culture heritage has been maintained. This has made Indian culture beautiful, charming and pleasing. Simultaneously,  it has also bestowed India a prestigious place.

India - Land And People

The specialty of India is that traces of the different races are found in India. The Dravidians were considered to be the most ancient people of India but the modern researchers of linguistics and anthropology have proved that even before the Dravidians came and settled in India six more tribes were also found form different lands. They also contributed to our culture diversity.

These people can be described as under:
(1) Negroid (Habsi People) :
Some historians believe that Negrate or Negros (Habsi) are the most ancient in Habitants of India. They came from Africa and via Baluchistan to India. They are black, having height of 4 to 5 feet and curly hair.

(2) Australoid (Nishad People) :
This tribe of people from South-East Asia. Their physical characteristics were : black skin, with broad head, flat nose short in height etc. The Aryans who came later on to India call them Nishad. The origins of the tribes like Kol and Munda, Khashi tribe of Assam the tribes of Nicobar and Myanmar have similarities to the Australoids. Their contributed in the development of India culture and civilization is immense.

They made clay utensils, wove cotton cloth and knew many other skills. They had great religious beliefs too.

(3) The Dravidians :
Before the Aryans the Dravidians used to live in India and they used to speak Dravidan-language. The Dravidians were the direct decendants of stone Age civilization and the creator of Mohan-jo-Daro culture The Indian culture is greatly indebted to the Dravidians just like the Aryans is many respects. The Dravidians gave the thought   of mother as a Goddess and father as a God; So the thought of parvati and shiva or mother and father developed.

Moreover the tradition of worshipping nature is the gift of the Dravidians. The tradition of worshipping with Dhup (incense stick) Deep (lamp) and Aarti  (worship with Aarti) are considered to be the gifts Dravidians. The Dravidians developed urban civilization by constructing houses with bricks. They matriarchal system of family. They progressed a lot in different like building of boat and raft weaving spinning dyeing arts etc.

Arrows spears and swords etc were their weapons. They were-versed in the art of weaving cotton cloth and making tools for agriculture. Due to the dominance of the Aryans in the north of the India the Dravidians shifted to south India and settled there. As a result today we can find the people speaking Dravidians –family languages like Tamil Kannada and Malayalam etc. in south India. 

(4) Other tribes :
A part from this Alpine Dinarik and Armenoid tribes are the tribes who migrated from central Asia. All those three tribes have some similarities. The origins (genes) of those tribes are found in a large number in Gujarat Saurashtra, Maharashtra Bengal and in Orissa.

(5) Mongoloid (Kirat) :
People possessed the physical characteristics like yellow complexion flat face chubby cheeks almond shaped eyes etc. They came to India from North East chia via Tibet and settled down at north Assam East Bengal sikkim Bhutan and they gradually Indianized themselves.

(6) The Aryans :
The Aryans were more developed people then any other contemporary tribes. They loves prayed and worshipped the trees, rivers, mountains, the sun, wind and rain. They had composed hymns (mantras) for praying various natural elements.

In due course of time, some religious ceremonies were originated out of them the Yagnayagaadi (related of Yajna) which observe the influence of the Aryans on Indian culture.

The Nordic - Aryans were the makers of Aryan culture in India. Excepting the distinguishing features of different tribes which came earlier in India and created a harmonious culture in India with passage of time all these tribes which came to India and settled there were amalgamated through inter tribe marriages. This process helped in the merging of all those tribes into one.

There was merging of those tribes with their specific style of living, different languages and thoughts in to one. So right from the beginning there was a creation of harmonious culture which gave India glorious and prosperous heritage. This great heritage of India attracted the attention amongst the people of the world in such a way that during the ancient period many foreigners came down in big number. In the beginning of the second century a new era began with the advent of the foreigners. This is because of Alexanderls invasion, the Greeks came to India later. The shakas kushnas pallavea and hunas etc. came and settled in different parts of India over a long period of time. India became their native land. They all then became Indian. Greek emperor Menander was recognized as milind, after his conversion to Buddhism. Thus the culture structure of India was strengthened in many ways. This made Indian culture variegated these tribes migrated in such a way that they lost their individual identity.

These foreigner and the Indian tribes were greatly influenced by languages, script names religions and beliefs etc. Religion played a vital role in indianizing these foreigners. Some of them accepted the Buddhism and some accepted Hinduism. The kushan emperor kanishka I adopted Buddhism and contributed notably in propagating Buddhism some pillar inscriptions coins cave inscriptions stone  inscription etc. are a witness to all these.

These foreign tribes adopted not only the religion but they also adopted language script social traditions etc. They also adopted Indian names and titles. In short in ancient India the amalgamation of various cultures enriched Indian culture by making it variegated and prosperous. 

Importance Of Culture Heritage

As we have seen earlier, culture means whatever we possess and civilization means what we are The different aspects of this culture are handed down by one generation to the next They add to whatever they have learnt and at the same time teach it to the next generation Thus whatever is inherited from generation to generation is called heritage. 

The existence of human society is also indebted to culture heritage On the other side the existence and continuity of this culture is mutual. At the same time it is supplementary and nourishing. The culture has greatly influenced social economical religious and cultural aspects of human life.

Person’s food clothes dwelling social life ways of expression means of entertainment style of communication style of earning all are decided by the culture only. Thus it teacher the art of living. A long with teaching the style of human behavior and attitude, it also lay necessary social restrictions.

In short every generation preserves and cultivates the heritage on account of this only the continuity of culture is maintained.

Thus the glorious heritage covers both the natural and cultural heritage. The natural heritage covers the mountains seas rivers tanks lakes ponds forests etc. whereas the cultural heritage covers the places structures stone inscriptions stupas chaityas vihar temple mosques domes forts gates mythological and excavated places historical  monuments historical places of our freedom movement etc.  It all made India a beautiful charming pleasing culture simultaneously India has attained a prestigious place by preserving the glorious heritage and has attained a prominent place among all the cultures of the world.

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